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Monday, March 22, 2021

Dangerous Hybrid Corona strain ; Rises the concern of Worlds Scientists


Pune: While the corona has exploded in the state, now another shocking information has come to light. The threat of hybrid corona virus has increased in the world. It is unknown at this time what he will do after leaving the post. Scientists do not know how dangerous this new virus is.

The new hybrid corona virus is currently spreading rapidly around the world. This hybrid virus is born from a combination of two viruses.

The virus is transmitted from person to person. Dave Vaninsberg, a scientist at Emory University in the United States, has brought this hybrid virus to the world's attention.

The hybrid virus is a combination of B.117 in the UK and B.1.429 in California.

The virus is currently spreading in Los Angeles, USA. The new virus also has the ability to neutralize antibodies.

The spike proteins of the hybrid virus are stronger than those found in Wuhan.

It is questionable how effective the current corona vaccine is against the new virus.

A new wave of corona has arrived in many countries, not just the United States. The corona exploded in Mumbai and Maharashtra. In this case, the hybrid corona virus is even more worrying.

Experts say that since the virus is rapidly changing its structure, vaccine production also needs to change.

The reason why many people get corona infection even after getting vaccinated is because of hybrid corona, isn't it? Such a question is currently present.

Sunday, March 21, 2021

Why Covishield (Corona Vaccine) is less effective in some patients

Hello friends, 

 I asked all my doctor friends out of curiosity if they have seen Cold Chain Maintenance by taking Covishield Vaccine. When asked by many, Dr. Abhi Annadate said, "No. I sat on a stool like a sensible patient, put it on my arm, vaccinated. I took it and sat in the hall for half an hour, there was no reaction, I took paracetamol tablets, thanked Sister and the person who gave me the pills and walked home. I didn't see what Sister had pierced, where she had put it, where she had taken it out. It doesn't even come to mind. "This is a very representative answer. Everyone did the same and
there is nothing wrong with that.

 But I visited two vaccination centers as the responsibility of IMA, YEOLA BR.PRESIDENT. 

 So the following type was found 

where in one place the vial was in an ice cube but the ice cube contained water instead of ice. In another place, at four o'clock, the vaccine fell on the vaccine vial on the wool table through the west window. In both cases, there was no cold force to hold the vaccine vial. This story is heartbreaking for all of us. So I decided to start an awareness campaign among doctors about this as a representative of IMA. This article 
........... If the current corona vaccination does not maintain cold chain, this vaccination campaign will be a curse instead of a boon. Because .... 

 1. The Covishield vaccine is a life saver ... but it is just as fragile. 

2. It is useful only if its temperature is maintained at 2 to 10 Degree celcius. 

 3. If the temperature is not maintained, injection of vaccine will be like injection of distilled water and it will be of no use. And Corona will happen again. 

 4. The journey from the time the vaccine is made in the factory to the time it is injected directly into the patient is very long and goes through many stages. It goes through many people, vehicles, storage refrigerators, injectors.

 5. Maintaining its temperature at 2 to 8 degrees during all these journeys means maintaining its cold chain is a very complex and responsible task. 

 6. There is talk in the media today that some people are getting coronary heart disease even after taking both doses. So for those people, it's a "cold chain that hasn't been maintained." The possibility that the vaccine has been injected cannot be ruled out. 

 7. Because a simple fridge does not work to store this vaccine. This is because its temperature is constantly fluctuating. Suppose this simple fridge is closed for a long time, e.g. When it is closed overnight, the temperature drops below 2 degrees. Ice is formed and if the fridge is opened, the cold air inside is heavy and it goes down quickly to the feet. As the hot air cools, the latency heat releases 540 calories as the temperature drops by one degree Celsius, so the air inside the fridge is initially heated and the temperature immediately rises to a maximum of 8 degrees. Which means it's about to be the most delusional time of the year, as well. Also, even if the vaccine is accidentally frozen, it loses its potency. A special ILR (Ice Lined Refrigerator) is required for such vaccines. Its structure consists of vertical ice-filled tubes attached to each other. Besides, it is horizontal, so when opened, the heavy cold remains in it and its temperature is stable at 2 to 8 degrees. We all know this. "I don't want to ice the vaccine, I want to keep it next to the ice." 

 8. There may be such ILRs in government hospitals, but it is important to make sure that there are freezers in the private hospitals that administer the vaccine. If not, private vaccination centers should be closed immediately. 
 9. The journey and handling of the vaccine from this ILR to the patient is very important and responsible. 8. In order to remove the vaccine from the ILR and deliver it to the vaccine center, it has to be dropped in the "Vaccine Carrier" box. So this "vaccine carrier" It is not possible to take a handful of onions and potatoes and put them in a vaccine carrier by placing them in a vaccine bottle which is called "Vail" in medical language as it will come in contact with the body and its temperature will reach 37.5 degrees and the vaccine will be useless. 

 10. So ... each of these should be picked up one by one with the tweezers already cooled and put in the vaccine carrier. 10. This vaccine carrier should be chilled with an ice pack one hour in advance. Otherwise the vaccine carrier is taken and filled with the vaccine in it, while the air at this room temperature i.e. 28-30 degrees can cause the vaccine to fail by increasing the temperature of the vaccine vial in this vaccine carrier. The vaccine carrier should be tightly closed when the vaccine is filled. 

 11. Now, at the vaccination center, the vaccine should be taken by the carrier leader in the shade and in an AC vehicle. In any case, the leader of the vehicle should take care that the heat coming from the window of the vehicle does not fall on it. 
 12. Vaccine should be taken out one by one for injecting with the help of pre-cooled tweezers. 

13. Keep the extracted vaccine in an ice pack. Instead, in many places, the vaccine vial (bottle) is seen lying on the table outside, or if it is kept in an ice pack, but the ice pack contains ice water, but the new ice pack is not taken, or summer has just started, the window is warming up. If these vaccine vials are seen on that table, then such vaccines will be of no use. 

14. The last and most important step where the mistake is made is not to hold the vaccine bottle with all fingers or fists. Because if it is straightforward, the temperature of the vaccine will be the same as the body and the vaccine will be useless. To do this, grab the bottle by the thumb and the finger near the thumb and hold it at the mouth of the bottle where there is a rubber butt (stop rubber) inside and remove the required dose from it and immediately place the bottle in the ice pack. This means that the temperature will be maintained. This is the process. In-depth training is given to all health workers. But due to the work ethic, it is ignored by the actual vaccinator. And if that happens, this drug worth crores of rupees will be wasted and this huge amount of labor will be wasted. To prevent this from happening, mobile teams should be formed to monitor this. They should keep a close eye on this vaccination. 

 Officials say the vaccine has a 70% potential. It really will be. But even though the vaccine has a capacity of 70-80 per cent, which means it cannot provide 100 per cent protection, if a vaccine with a strict cold chain maintenance is injected, the 70 per cent protection that will be given will save lives. There will be no death. But if the vaccine that is not maintained in cold chain is injected, no one will be protected from corana at all .... 
 but .... 
 but ...... 
People will be under the delusion of getting vaccinated ... they will not wear masks ... stop taking care Will do. And then corona cases will continue to grow at a similarly rapid rate. This orgy of death will continue like this. Instead of getting protection from vaccination, it will be a curse to you. 
This should be noted with good conscience and care. Dr. S. Patil ... President, I. M. A. Yeola 

Thursday, March 18, 2021

Study of Dopamine on male and female mice

Specific neurons release dopamine to regulate pain differently in male and female mice.

Males and females, generally speaking, experience and respond to pain differently, but scientists have yet to understand all the brain circuits involved in these differences. Now, new research from the UNC School of Medicine lab of Thomas Kash, PhD, shows how neurons use dopamine to regulate pain differently in male and female mice.

The discovery, published in the journal Neuron, could help the scientific community devise better pain management strategies, particularly for women, who are disproportionally affected by pain throughout their lifespans.

Dopamine, long known as the brain's pleasure chemical, can actually regulate a wide variety of behaviors. The dopamine neurons that Kash and his lab looked at had previously been shown to be important for both the rewarding properties and the pain-relieving properties of heroin. Beyond this, several studies have shown that these neurons can regulate attention, suggesting a link between drug abuse, pain, and attention.

Previously, using male mice, the Kash lab found that dopaminergic neurons played a key role in how opiates dampen pain, likely through the release of dopamine and glutamate. In the new experiments, his lab focused on a neural pathway starting at the midbrain region called the periaqueductal grey, including part of the dorsal raphe.

We focused on this neural pathway because our previous work and that of others show that specific neurons release dopamine to regulate pain responses. Unfortunately, that research was done only in male mice. So we decided to look at both male and female mice, and what we found was very surprising."

Dopamine, long known as the brain's pleasure chemical, can actually regulate a wide variety of behaviors. The dopamine neurons that Kash and his lab looked at had previously been shown to be important for both the rewarding properties and the pain-relieving properties of heroin. Beyond this, several studies have shown that these neurons can regulate attention, suggesting a link between drug abuse, pain, and attention.

That brain region is involved in behavioral adaptation – how animals learn to respond to their environment. The neurons that make dopamine in that region operate in conjunction with a brain structure called the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, or BNST, forming a neural pathway.

"We found that activating this pathway reduced pain sensitivity in male mice, but made female mice move more, especially in the presence of something capturing their attention," said first author Waylin Yu, PhD, a former graduate student in the Kash lab and current postdoctoral researcher at UC San Francisco. "We think this is because of the different ways males and females respond to pain."

In particular, these experiments seem to indicate that dopamine helps males simply not feel as much pain, while in females, dopamine helps the mice focus attention elsewhere while in the presence of pain.

More research is needed, but the Kash lab research shows that activating specific neural projections to the BNST reduces acute and persistent inflammatory pain, providing further evidence that dopamine signaling can enhance the blocking of pain stimuli, thus counteracting severe pain.

"We hope to investigate how this pathway can regulate more emotional behaviors associated with chronic pain, and then also look at the dynamics of the system, such as how this pathway works in real time during behavior measurements," Kash said. "These neurons are also implicated in the actions of opioids such as morphine, so we plan to investigate that domain, as well."


University of North Carolina School of Medicine

Women Are More Interested In Sex Than You Think, Studies Show


Women Are More Interested In Sex Than You Think, Studies Show 

Men underestimate their wife’s or girlfriend’s sexual desire; read her signals
Rarely are researchers’ findings so satisfying. Women may want more sex than their husbands or partners think.

New research by psychologists at the University of Toronto and the University of Western Ontario, published earlier this month in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, found that men in long-term relationships often underestimate how often their wives or girlfriends want to be intimate.

The research consists of three studies, following a total of 229 long-term couples, most of whom are heterosexual. (The sample of homosexual couples was too small to be statistically significant, the researchers say.) Participants ranged in age from 18 to 68 years old; the couples had been together six years on average, and they reported they had sex an average of one to two times a week.

In study one, 44 couples kept a diary for three weeks: Partners reported on their own level of sexual desire each day, as well as their perception of their partner’s level of desire and their level of relationship satisfaction. In study two, 84 couples came into the laboratory once and reported on the general levels of their desire, their perception of their partner’s desire and their happiness in the relationship. And in study three, 101 couples kept a diary for three weeks, reporting on the same three issues. They were also asked to report how motivated they were each day to avoid sexual rejection.

According to ‘The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States,’ a 1994 University of Chicago study considered the most comprehensive in the field:

 Almost 80% of married couples have sex a few times a month or more.
 Thirty-two percent of married couples report having sex two to three times a week.
 Forty-seven percent of married couples report having sex a few times a month.
 Less than 10% of married people say their last sexual event lasted an hour or more.
All three studies showed the same thing: Men consistently underestimated their female partner’s desire, while the women had an accurate read on whether or not their partner was interested in sex. And on the days when the men thought their partner was less sexually interested than she actually was, the women reported being more satisfied in and committed to the relationship.

The researchers believe that men underestimate their partner’s desire to avoid sexual rejection. If a man initiates sex and his wife rebuffs him, he may feel bad or resentful and she may feel annoyed. By assuming she isn’t interested and not initiating sex, he avoids this downward spiral. And he also may work harder to entice her, which may explain why she still feels content on those days. “It is better for the relationship for him to under-perceive, because it avoids complacency,” says Amy Muise, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Toronto.

How much sex is “normal”? Almost 80% of married couples have sex a few times a month or more: 32% report having sex two to three times a week; 47% say they have sex a few times a month, according to “The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States,” a 1994 University of Chicago study considered the most comprehensive in the field.

Men have a higher sex drive on average, research has found. But in long-term relationships—typically defined as longer than three years—men are equally as likely as women to be the partner with low sexual desire. A June 2015, article in the journal “Current Sexual Health Reports” reviewed 31 research studies on sexual desire and sexual discrepancy and found no gender differences in which partner had the higher sex drive.

“The assumption that women are going to be the lower-desire partner needs to be thrown out,” says Kristen Mark, author of the article and director of the sexual health promotion laboratory at the University of Kentucky.

There are a number of reasons why a man might underestimate how much sex his female partner wants, psychologists say. Some women don’t feel comfortable initiating sex. Others give up initiating after their cues are ignored or missed repeatedly. And many just don’t send clear enough signals.

“I will see women in my office who will tell their husband: ‘Remember when I was joking about that sex scene in that movie we saw? Well, I was trying to come onto you,’” says Sari Cooper, a sex and marriage therapist in New York City. “He may need something more overt.”

The problem of women not communicating well about their desire is more complex than couples think, Ms. Cooper says. The woman may not really know what she wants sexually, so she has trouble communicating her wishes or would feel uncomfortable following through with what she asked for. Or she may know that she is the higher-desire partner and be trying to spare his feelings, so he doesn’t feel pressured or unmanly if he doesn’t want to have sex.

(The women in the Toronto study who said they were more satisfied in their relationship on days when their partners underestimated their sex drive are probably happier in general with their sex life than the couples who show up for sex therapy, the researchers say.)

So what can a couple do? Communicate—not just about when they want to have sex or what they like, but also about what signals they use to show their desire. They should also talk about what signals they prefer to receive. “It’s important not to initiate sex in a way that is a turn off to your partner,” the University of Toronto’s Dr. Muise says.

When talking with your partner about sex—or anything sensitive—use the word “we” instead of the word “you.” A good start is to say: “This is important to me. How can we create a situation that is comfortable for both of us?” “That way there is no blaming going on,” Ms. Cooper, the sex therapist, says. “The couple is sitting down to solve the problem together.”

If you can tell your partner is interested in sex but you aren't in the mood, acknowledge their desire. Explain that you find your partner attractive and would like to be intimate, just not at the moment. And promise to find another time.

Consider having sex even if you’re not in the mood. Research shows that people in long-term relationships who do this—it is called showing “sexual communal strength”—are better able to maintain their sexual desire over time.

Think about scheduling sex. It doesn’t sound romantic. But it is essentially what newer couples do when they plan a date. A study of strategies women use to sync their desire with their partner’s, conducted by researchers at Indiana University, in Bloomington, Ind., and the University of Kentucky and published in 2013 in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, showed this to be a very effective at boosting couples’ sexual satisfaction.

Saturday, March 13, 2021

Boy or girl? It's in the father's genes


March 12, 2021
Newcastle University
A study of hundreds of years of family trees suggests a man's genes play a role in him having sons or daughters. Men inherit a tendency to have more sons or more daughters from their parents. This means that a man with many brothers is more likely to have sons, while a man with many sisters is more likely to have daughters.

A Newcastle University study involving thousands of families is helping prospective parents work out whether they are likely to have sons or daughters.

The work by Corry Gellatly, a research scientist at the university, has shown that men inherit a tendency to have more sons or more daughters from their parents. This means that a man with many brothers is more likely to have sons, while a man with many sisters is more likely to have daughters.

The research involved a study of 927 family trees containing information on 556,387 people from North America and Europe going back to 1600.

"The family tree study showed that whether you’re likely to have a boy or a girl is inherited. We now know that men are more likely to have sons if they have more brothers but are more likely to have daughters if they have more sisters. However, in women, you just can’t predict it," Mr Gellatly explains.

Men determine the sex of a baby depending on whether their sperm is carrying an X or Y chromosome. An X chromosome combines with the mother’s X chromosome to make a baby girl (XX) and a Y chromosome will combine with the mother’s to make a boy (XY).

The Newcastle University study suggests that an as-yet undiscovered gene controls whether a man’s sperm contains more X or more Y chromosomes, which affects the sex of his children. On a larger scale, the number of men with more X sperm compared to the number of men with more Y sperm affects the sex ratio of children born each year.

Sons or daughters?

A gene consists of two parts, known as alleles, one inherited from each parent. In his paper, Mr Gellatly demonstrates that it is likely men carry two different types of allele, which results in three possible combinations in a gene that controls the ratio of X and Y sperm;

  • Men with the first combination, known as mm, produce more Y sperm and have more sons.
  • The second, known as mf, produce a roughly equal number of X and Y sperm and have an approximately equal number of sons and daughters.
  • The third, known as ff produce more X sperm and have more daughters.

“The gene that is passed on from both parents, which causes some men to have more sons and some to have more daughters, may explain why we see the number of men and women roughly balanced in a population. If there are too many males in the population, for example, females will more easily find a mate, so men who have more daughters will pass on more of their genes, causing more females to be born in later generations,” says Newcastle University researcher Mr Gellatly.

More boys born after the wars

In many of the countries that fought in the World Wars, there was a sudden increase in the number of boys born afterwards. The year after World War I ended, an extra two boys were born for every 100 girls in the UK, compared to the year before the war started. The gene, which Mr Gellatly has described in his research, could explain why this happened.

As the odds were in favour of men with more sons seeing a son return from the war, those sons were more likely to father boys themselves because they inherited that tendency from their fathers. In contrast, men with more daughters may have lost their only sons in the war and those sons would have been more likely to father girls. This would explain why the men that survived the war were more likely to have male children, which resulted in the boy-baby boom.

In most countries, for as long as records have been kept, more boys than girls have been born. In the UK and US, for example, there are currently about 105 males born for every 100 females.

It is well-documented that more males die in childhood and before they are old enough to have children. So in the same way that the gene may cause more boys to be born after wars, it may also cause more boys to be born each year.

How does the gene work?

The trees (above) illustrate how the gene works. It is a simplified example, in which men either have only sons, only daughters, or equal numbers of each, though in reality it is less clear cut. It shows that although the gene has no effect in females, they also carry the gene and pass it to their children.

In the first family tree (A) the grandfather is mm, so all his children are male. He only passes on the m allele, so his children are more likely to have the mm combination of alleles themselves. As a result, those sons may also have only sons (as shown). The grandsons have the mf combination of alleles, because they inherited an m from their father and an f from their mother. As a result, they have an equal number of sons and daughters (the great grandchildren).

In the second tree (B) the grandfather is ff, so all his children are female, they have the ff combination of alleles because their father and mother were both ff. One of the female children has her own children with a male who has the mm combination of alleles. That male determines the sex of the children, so the grandchildren are all male. The grandsons have the mf combination of alleles, because they inherited an m from their father and f from their mother. As a result, they have an equal number of sons and daughters (the great-grandchildren).

Story Source:

Materials provided by Newcastle UniversityNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Gellatly et al. Trends in Population Sex Ratios May be Explained by Changes in the Frequencies of Polymorphic Alleles of a Sex Ratio GeneEvolutionary Biology, Dec 11, 2008; DOI: 10.1007/s11692-008-9046-3

Prediabetes may be linked to worse brain health


People with prediabetes, whose blood sugar levels are higher than normal, may have an increased risk of cognitive decline and vascular dementia, according to a new study led by UCL researchers.

March' 13, 2021
University College London
Researchers analyzed data from the UK Biobank of 500,000 people aged 58 years on average, and found that people with higher than normal blood sugar levels were 42% more likely to experience cognitive decline over an average of four years, and were 54% more likely to develop vascular dementia over an average of eight years (although absolute rates of both cognitive decline and dementia were low).

For the study, published in the journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, researchers analysed data from the UK Biobank of 500,000 people aged 58 years on average, and found that people with higher than normal blood sugar levels were 42% more likely to experience cognitive decline over an average of four years, and were 54% more likely to develop vascular dementia over an average of eight years (although absolute rates of both cognitive decline and dementia were low).

The associations remained true after other influential factors had been taken into account -- including age, deprivation, smoking, BMI and whether or not participants had cardiovascular disease.

People with prediabetes have blood sugar levels that are higher than usual, but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. It means they are more at risk of developing diabetes. There are an estimated five to seven million people* with prediabetes in the UK.

Lead author Dr Victoria Garfield (UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and the UCL MRC Unit for Lifelong Health & Ageing) said: "Our research shows a possible link between higher blood sugar levels -- a state often described as 'prediabetes' -- and higher risks of cognitive decline and vascular dementia. As an observational study, it cannot prove higher blood sugar levels cause worsening brain health. However, we believe there is a potential connection that needs to be investigated further.

"Previous research has found a link between poorer cognitive outcomes and diabetes but our study is the first to investigate how having blood sugar levels that are relatively high -- but do not yet constitute diabetes -- may affect our brain health."

In the study, researchers investigated how different blood sugar levels, or glycaemic states, were associated with performance in cognitive tests over time, dementia diagnoses, and brain structure measured by MRI scans of the brain. Each of these measures were limited to smaller subsets of the Biobank sample (for instance, only 18,809 participants had follow-up cognitive tests).

At recruitment all of the UK Biobank participants underwent an HbA1c test, which determines average blood sugar levels over the past two to three months. Participants were divided into five groups on the basis of the results -- "low-normal" level of blood sugar, normoglycaemia (having a normal concentration of sugar in the blood), prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes and diabetes. A result between 42-48 mmol/mol (6.0-6.5%) was classified as prediabetes.

The researchers used data from repeated assessments of visual memory to determine whether participants had cognitive decline or not. Though absolute rates of cognitive decline were low, people with prediabetes and diabetes had a similarly higher likelihood of cognitive decline -- 42% and 39% respectively.

Looking at dementia diagnoses, researchers found that prediabetes was associated with a higher likelihood of vascular dementia, a common form of dementia caused by reduced blood flow to the brain, but not Alzheimer's disease. People with diabetes, meanwhile, were three times more likely to develop vascular dementia than people whose blood sugar levels were classified as normal, and more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease.

Senior author Professor Nishi Chaturvedi (UCL MRC Unit for Lifelong Health & Ageing) said: "In this relatively young age group, the risks of cognitive decline and of dementia are very low; the excess risks we observe in relation to elevated blood sugar only modestly increase the absolute rates of ill health. Seeing whether these effects persist as people get older, and where absolute rates of disease get higher, will be important.

"Our findings also need to be replicated using other datasets. If they are confirmed, they open up questions about the potential benefits of screening for diabetes in the general population and whether we should be intervening earlier."

Among 35,418 participants of the UK Biobank study who underwent MRI brain scans, researchers found that prediabetes was associated somewhat with a smaller hippocampus and more strongly associated with having lesions on the brain (white matter hyperintensities, WMHs) -- both associated with age-related cognitive impairment.

The researchers said that some of these differences could be explained by elevated blood pressure, as those participants taking antihypertensive medication were likely to have more WMHs and smaller hippocampal volume. Rather than the treatment having an adverse effect on the brain, the researchers said use of such medication might be an indicator of earlier untreated high blood pressure.

People with prediabetes can reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by eating a healthy, balanced diet, being more active, and staying at a healthy weight.

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