Welcome To Arvigen Healthcare Generation towards healthcare bringing


Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. Pharmacology Constant tempertature bath for isolated organs Wellcome M0013241.jpg Diagrammatic representation of organ bath used for studying the effect of isolated tissues MeSH Unique ID D010600

 A variety of topics involved with pharmacology, including neuropharmacology, renal pharmacology, human metabolism, intracellular metabolism, and intracellular regulation The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, toxicology, chemical biology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.

The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems.

Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are frequently confused. Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research, discovery, and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. In contrast, pharmacy, a health services profession, is concerned with application of the principles learned from pharmacology in its clinical settings; whether it be in a dispensing or clinical care role. In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient care, for pharmacy practice, and the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology.

The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages in Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, and John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering. Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period. Before the second half of the nineteenth century, the remarkable potency and specificity of the actions of drugs such as morphine, quinine and digitalis were explained vaguely and with reference to extraordinary chemical powers and affinities to certain organs or tissues. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts. Today pharmacologists use genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and other advanced tools to transform information about molecular mechanisms and targets into therapies directed against disease, defects or pathogens, and create methods for preventative care, diagnostics, and ultimately personalized medicine. Divisions Edit The discipline of pharmacology can be divided into many sub disciplines each with a specific focus.

 Clinical pharmacology

 Clinical pharmacology is the basic science of pharmacology with an added focus on the application of pharmacological principles and methods in the medical clinic and towards patient care and outcomes.

 Neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of medication on central and peripheral nervous system functioning. Psychopharmacology Edit Psychopharmacology, also known as behavioral pharmacology, is the study of the effects of medication on the psyche (psychology), observing changed behaviors of the body and mind, and how molecular events are manifest in a measurable behavioral form. Psychopharmacology is an interdisciplinary field which studies behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs. It incorporates approaches and techniques from neuropharmacology, animal behavior and behavioral neuroscience, and is interested in the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs. Another goal of behavioral pharmacology is to develop animal behavioral models to screen chemical compounds with therapeutic potentials. People in this field (called behavioral pharmacologists) typically use small animals (e.g. rodents) to study psychotherapeutic drugs such as antipsychotics, antidepressants and anxiolytics, and drugs of abuse such as nicotine, cocaine and methamphetamine. Ethopharmacology (not to be confused with ethnopharmacology) is a term which has been in use since the 1960s and derives from the Greek word ἦθος ethos meaning character and "pharmacology" the study of drug actions and mechanism. 

Cardiovascular pharmacology

 Cardiovascular pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood vessels. Pharmacogenetics Edit Pharmacogenetics is clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs.


 Pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs. Pharmacoepidemiology Edit Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the effects of drugs in large numbers of people. Safety pharmacology Edit Safety pharmacology specialises in detecting and investigating potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of new chemical entities (NCEs) on physiological functions in relation to exposure in the therapeutic range and above.

 Systems pharmacology 

Systems pharmacology is the coding system principles in the field of pharmacology.


 Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects, molecular targets, and characterization of drugs or any chemical substance in excess (including those beneficial in lower doses).

 Theoretical pharmacology 

Theoretical pharmacology is a relatively new and rapidly expanding field of research activity in which many of the techniques of computational chemistry, in particular computational quantum chemistry and the method of molecular mechanics, are proving to be of great value. Theoretical pharmacologists aim at rationalizing the relation between the activity of a particular drug, as observed experimentally, and its structural features as derived from computer experiments. They aim to find structure—activity relations. Furthermore, on the basis of the structure of a given organic molecule, the theoretical pharmacologist aims at predicting the biological activity of new drugs that are of the same general type as existing drugs. More ambitiously, it aims to predict entirely new classes of drugs, tailor-made for specific purposes.


 Posology is the study of how medicines are dosed. This depends upon various factors including age, climate, weight, sex, elimination rate of drug, genetic polymorphism and time of administration. It is derived from the Greek words πόσος posos meaning "how much?" and -λογία -logia "study of".

Environmental pharmacology 

Environmental pharmacology is a new discipline. Focus is being given to understand gene–environment interaction, drug-environment interaction and toxin-environment interaction. There is a close collaboration between environmental science and medicine in addressing these issues, as healthcare itself can be a cause of environmental damage or remediation. Human health and ecology are intimately related. Demand for more pharmaceutical products may place the public at risk through the destruction of species. The entry of chemicals and drugs into the aquatic ecosystem is a more serious concern today. In addition, the production of some illegal drugs pollutes drinking water supply by releasing carcinogens. This field is intimately linked with Public Health fields. 

Experimental pharmacology

Experimental pharmacology involves the study of pharmacology through bioassay, to test the efficacy and potency of a drug.

 Dental pharmacology

 Dental pharmacology relates to the study of drugs commonly used in the treatment of dental disease.

 Scientific background 

The study of chemicals requires intimate knowledge of the biological system affected. With the knowledge of cell biology and biochemistry increasing, the field of pharmacology has also changed substantially. It has become possible, through molecular analysis of receptors, to design chemicals that act on specific cellular signaling or metabolic pathways by affecting sites directly on cell-surface receptors (which modulate and mediate cellular signaling pathways controlling cellular function). A chemical has, from the pharmacological point-of-view, various properties.

Pharmacokinetics describes the effect of the body on the chemical (e.g. half-life and volume of distribution), and pharmacodynamics describes the chemical's effect on the body (desired or toxic). When describing the pharmacokinetic properties of the chemical that is the active ingredient or active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), pharmacologists are often interested in L-ADME:
 Liberation – How is the API disintegrated (for solid oral forms (breaking down into smaller particles)), dispersed, or dissolved from the medication?
Absorption – How is the API absorbed (through the skin, the intestine, the oral mucosa)?
Distribution – How does the API spread through the organism?
Metabolism – Is the API converted chemically inside the body, and into which substances. Are these active (as well)? Could they be toxic? Excretion – How is the API excreted (through the bile, urine, breath, skin)? Medication is said to have a narrow or wide therapeutic index or therapeutic window. This describes the ratio of desired effect to toxic effect. A compound with a narrow therapeutic index (close to one) exerts its desired effect at a dose close to its toxic dose. A compound with a wide therapeutic index (greater than five) exerts its desired effect at a dose substantially below its toxic dose. Those with a narrow margin are more difficult to dose and administer, and may require therapeutic drug monitoring (examples are warfarin, some antiepileptics, aminoglycoside antibiotics). Most anti-cancer drugs have a narrow therapeutic margin: toxic side-effects are almost always encountered at doses used to kill tumors.

 Medicine development and safety testing 

Development of medication is a vital concern to medicine, but also has strong economical and political implications. To protect the consumer and prevent abuse, many governments regulate the manufacture, sale, and administration of medication. In the United States, the main body that regulates pharmaceuticals is the Food and Drug Administration and they enforce standards set by the United States Pharmacopoeia. In the European Union, the main body that regulates pharmaceuticals is the EMA and they enforce standards set by the European Pharmacopoeia. The metabolic stability and the reactivity of a library of candidate drug compounds have to be assessed for drug metabolism and toxicological studies. Many methods have been proposed for quantitative predictions in drug metabolism; one example of a recent computational method is SPORCalc. If the chemical structure of a medicinal compound is altered slightly, this could slightly or dramatically alter the medicinal properties of the compound depending on the level of alteration as it relates to the structural composition of the substrate or receptor site on which it exerts its medicinal effect, a concept referred to as the structural activity relationship (SAR). This means that when a useful activity has been identified, chemists will make many similar compounds called analogues, in an attempt to maximize the desired medicinal effect(s) of the compound. This development phase can take anywhere from a few years to a decade or more and is very expensive. These new analogues need to be developed. It needs to be determined how safe the medicine is for human consumption, its stability in the human body and the best form for delivery to the desired organ system, like tablet or aerosol. After extensive testing, which can take up to 6 years, the new medicine is ready for marketing and selling. As a result of the long time required to develop analogues and test a new medicine and the fact that of every 5000 potential new medicines typically only one will ever reach the open market, this is an expensive way of doing things, often costing over 1 billion dollars. To recoup this outlay pharmaceutical companies may do a number of things: Carefully research the demand for their potential new product before spending an outlay of company funds. Obtain a patent on the new medicine preventing other companies from producing that medicine for a certain allocation of time.

 Drug legislation and safety

 In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for creating guidelines for the approval and use of drugs. The FDA requires that all approved drugs fulfill two requirements: The drug must be found to be effective against the disease for which it is seeking approval (where 'effective' means only that the drug performed better than placebo or competitors in at least two trials). The drug must meet safety criteria by being subject to animal and controlled human testing. Gaining FDA approval usually takes several years. Testing done on animals must be extensive and must include several species to help in the evaluation of both the effectiveness and toxicity of the drug. The dosage of any drug approved for use is intended to fall within a range in which the drug produces a therapeutic effect or desired outcome. The safety and effectiveness of prescription drugs in the U.S. is regulated by the federal Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has a similar role in the UK.


Students of pharmacology are trained as biomedical scientists, studying the effects of drugs on living organisms. This can lead to new drug discoveries, as well as a better understanding of the way in which the human body works. Students of pharmacology must have detailed working knowledge of aspects in physiology, pathology and chemistry. During a typical degree they will cover areas such as (but not limited to) biochemistry, cell biology, basic physiology, genetics and the Central Dogma, medical microbiology, neuroscience, and depending on the department's interests, bio-organic chemistry, or chemical biology. Modern Pharmacology is highly interdisciplinary. Graduate programs accept students from most biological and chemical backgrounds. With the increasing drive towards biophysical and computational research to describe systems, pharmacologists may even consider themselves mainly physical scientists. In many instances, Analytical Chemistry is closely related to the studies and needs of pharmacological research. Therefore, many institutions will include pharmacology under a Chemistry or Biochemistry Department, especially if a separate Pharmacology Dept. does not exist. What makes an institutional department independent of another, or exist in the first place, is usually an artifact of historical times. Whereas a pharmacy student will eventually work in a pharmacy dispensing medications, a pharmacologist will typically work within a laboratory setting. Careers for a pharmacologist include academic positions (medical and non-medical), governmental positions, private industrial positions, science writing, scientific patents and law, consultation, biotech and pharmaceutical employment, the alcohol industry, food industry, forensics/law enforcement, public health, and environmental/ecological sciences.


  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

  2. I am extremely delighted in for this web journal. Its a useful subject. It help me all that much to take care of a few issues. Its chance are so awesome and working style so rapid. frec 4 course

  3. This information is impressive..I am inspired with your post writing style & how continuously you describe this topic. After reading your post,thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel happy about it and I love learning more about this topic
    Microsoft Windows Azure Training | Online Course | Certification in chennai | Microsoft Windows Azure Training | Online Course | Certification in bangalore | Microsoft Windows Azure Training | Online Course | Certification in hyderabad | Microsoft Windows Azure Training | Online Course | Certification in pune

  4. My uncle's nearest medical clinic near me the wine center, where very cheap medicines are being provided.
    best gastroenterologist near me

  5. For true fans of this thread I will address is a free online! custom patches

  6. I propose merely very good along with reputable data, consequently visualize it: custom patches


  7. These are some great tools that i definitely use for SEO work. This is a great list to use in the future..

  8. This comment has been removed by the author.

  9. Positive site, where did u up with information on this posting? I'm pleased I discovered it though, ill be checking back soon to find out what additional posts you include.

    Where Can I Buy Assignments

  10. New Warm Baby Carrier Cloak Mantle Cover Buy baby carrier online $54.10 are available many Colours sarinasuon like Yellow, Light, Blue, Pink and regular size 0-12 Months 0-24 Months and age range : 0-36 Month Age Buy baby toys online, Buy kids toys online Range: 2 years Up Age Range: 3-24 months Age Range: 4-6 months Age Range: 7-36 months Age Range: 2-30 months Age Range: 10-12 months Age Range: 0-3 months Age Range: 2-24 months Age Range: 3-30 months Age Range: 2-18 months Age Range: 1-10 months Age Range: 13-18 months Age Range: 7-9 months Age Range: 19-24 months Baby swaddle wrap online Age Range: 2-12 months Origin: CN(Origin) Load Bearing: 9kg Material: Cotton Carriers Type: Front Carry Pattern Type: Solid, sarinasuon Subscribe to get special offers, free giveaways, and once-in-a-lifetime deals.

  11. Make your infant give sparkle a craft99us Baby shower standard are a pleasant Buy table centerpieces method of welcome to the infants into the world and aiding the particularly mother.The mother who is considering Buy baby shower banner the coming youngster to bring her better approaches for showers and candles, choices, candle holder stand and Buy party banner, and Buy party favors, neckless and counterfeit blossoms book and different items for her child and craft99us Your infant shower enhancements will look superb with this table sign.


  12. It was wondering if I could use this write-up on my other website, I will link it back to your website though. Great Thanks.

    discord awaiting endpoints

  13. I learn some new stuff from it too, thanks for your information.


  14. Fantastic blog! Do you have any tips and hints for writers? I’m planning to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely overwhelmed .. Any suggestions? Many thanks!
    bank statement for visa

  15. Awesome and interesting article. Great things you've always shared with us. Thanks. Just continue composing this kind of post.

    Blog comment backlinks

  16. Bandish ka tor karne k liye Dua Naade Ali Sharif ka arabi taweez ap k liye be had powerful sabat ثابت ho gha . ye naqsh ghar me rakhtay رکھتے hi fard ka ghar jan , aulad , karobar , sehat aur kamyabi bandish ki jakar جکڑ se azad ho jati hai aur fard ko dobara دوبارہ se har kaam me kamyabi hasil hona shuro ho jati hai .
    Bandish ka tor

    fantastic and thanks for information

  17. Shadi ka wazifa Surah Muzammil ap ki shadi aur rishta ki har rukawat ka tor hai . Ye Wazifa sirf 7 din karne se fard ko es wazifa ki barkat ka andaza ho jata hai . Surah Muzammil ka wazifa shadi , rishta aur rizq ki bandish ka tor karne k liye zamana Qadeen se kyia jata raha hai ,aur aj bhe ju afrad shadi aur rishta ki bandish ka shikar hain Inn ki bandish Surah Muzammil ka wazifa se hi door hoti hai .
    Shadi ka wazifa

    very nice excilent information

  18. kala jadu ka tod kya hai ye har koe nahi janta aur sirf batain باتیں karne se aur kahania کہانیاں sonane سنانے se kala jadu ka tod kabhi کبھی nahi ho sakta . kala jadu ka tod karne k liye ap ko Allah ki gaibi madad hasil karna hi ho ghe aur Allah ki gaibi غیبی madad مدد hasil karne ka powerful zaryia زریعہ Dua Naade Ali sharif hai . Yani ager ap jadu tona se chutkara چھٹکارہ pana chahtay چاہتے hain tu ap ko Dua Nad e Ali shrif ka daman دامن thamna تھامنا hi ho gha . Naade Ali ki barkat se nasirf sakht se sakht jadu ka tor ho jata hai balkay fard ka ghar , jan aur aulad hameesha Allah ki hifazat me bhe rehtay hain .
    kala jadu ka tod

    amazing & ousum

  19. rishton ki bandish ka tor karne k liye surah ikhlas ka wazifa be had powerful mana jata hai . bandish ka tor , ache rishte aur jald shadi k liye ye wazifa kabhi khata nahi jata .
    rishton me bandish ka aa jana aam se baat hai , bandish khatanak خطرناک iss waqat hoti hai jab ye porani ho jae , bandish khud ba khud خود بخود bhe kisi beti par hawi ho sakti hai aur kisi k karne par bhe bandish kisi par lagh sakti hai .
    rishton ki bandish ka tor
    expencive site & good healthcare

  20. Tension kisi bhe pareshani ko apne oper swar karne ka nam hai . tension ka ilaj waqat par hona zarori hai aur agr aysa na ho tu tension apne sath beshumar zehni aur jesmani Bimarian frad par hawai kar deti hai jes se baz Oqaat fard ko tamam zindgi shifa nahi milti .
    Tension Ka rohani ilaj
    good healtcare

  21. Pait dard ki dua Naade Ali sharif ki barkat se ap pait dard aur pait se related kisi bhe dard se fori nijat hasil kar saktay hain . nazrin pait dard ka masla kisi bhe fard ko ho sakta hai aur ye problem male se zaida female ko lahaq hoti hai .
    Pait Dard Ki Dua
    good healthcare

  22. Taweez for enemy yani صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ ka arabi naqsh aysay Tamam afrad k liye afzal hai ju apne Dushman ki waja se pareshan hain . summun bukmun Humayun fahum laa yatakallamun (صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ) ka arabi naqsh Dushman ki zuban bandi , dushman se hifazat , dushman se nijat aur dushman ko zeer karne k liye be had powerful hai .
    Taweez For Enemy

  23. period aane ki dua naade ali ruki hue ہوئی mahwari ماہواری , ruk ruk kar ane waly periods پیریڈز aur bhut ziada pain k sath anayآنے waly والے periods k liye bhut mujarrab مجرب hai . nazreen ناظرین har 5 khawtaeen خواتین mein se 1 ko periods ka masla مسئلہ hota hai . ye problem ziada tar young girls نوجوان لڑکیوں ko hoti hai .
    Period Aane Ki Dua

  24. taweez for business yani business me kamyabi کامیابی aur tarakki ترقی k liye Nady Ali ka taweez be had powerful mana jata hai . baz afrad be had mehnat محنت karne کرنے k bawajood باوجود apnay business ko kamyab karne me nakam ناکام rehte hain .
    taweez for business

  25. rajab moon wazifa Naade Ali ap ki zindaghi bhar ki mushkilat ka 1 rohani hal hai . iss wazifa ko 1 din rajab ka chand dekhne k baad kyia jata hai . rajab moon wazifa zindagi me sirf 1 bar karne se Allah ki zaat ap ko ap ki zindagi bhar ki hajat ata farma detay hain .
    rajab moon 2022 wazifa

  26. shab e meraj ka wazifa Naade Ali ap ki tamam hajat ki takmeel aur mushkilat ki asani k liye kafi hai.
    shab e meraj ka wazifa

  27. shohar khud rabta kry wazifa karne se pehlay پہلے ap ko namaz ki pabandi پابندی karne ki adat عادت dalni ڈالنی ho ghe . iss k baad ap rabta ka wazifa al hamd shareef krain Insha Allah ap ko kamyabi کامیابی hasil ho ghe .
    shohar khud rabta kry wazifa

  28. husband love wazifa rajab me karne se biwi ko iss k shohar ki mohabbat hameesha k liye hasil ho jati hai . ye wazifa rajab ki tasbeeh Nade Ali sharif ka ka hai .
    rajab ka wazifa for husband

  29. personality test k zaryia ap apni shadi , rishta , shohar , aulad , job , kamyabi aur apne har sawal ka jawab free mein fori hasil kar saktay hain . ham ne tamam rohani aloom ko yakja kar k ap k liye 1 aysi app banai hai jes se apni zaindagi mei nakami ki waja jan saktay hain .
    personality test

  30. This is such a great resource that you providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing websites that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. It is the old what goes around comes around routine.

  31. Axure Rp Crack + Activation Code Full Version Free Download For Mac/Windows. Axure RP 8 License Key Important parts of the informatio Axure RP 10 Full Crack

  32. Malwarebytes Keygen will give you better assurance against adware, spyware, and malware. This is an extremely helpful application. Malwarebytes Serial Key

  33. Explore Anita Ehlers's board "Once The Trust Is Broken Quotes!" on Pinterest. See more ideas about inspirational quotes, life quotes, me quotes. Once The Trust Is Broken Quotes


Study Shows MVT-602 Be a Novel Fertility-Improving Drug

  MVT-602 is a Novel Fertility-Improving Drug FERTILITY in women with reproductive health problems can be improved using a new drug accordin...